The Cotonou Agreement Pdf
Sub-regional trade agreements (RTA) in eastern and southern Africa have multiplied over the past 10 to 15 years. The small size of most countries in the region, some of which are landlocked, and the security needs in the aftermath of independence largely explain the rapid expansion. These agreements are characterized by multiple and overlapping memberships, complex structures and, finally, contradictory and confusing obligations. The influence of the RTA has been limited to helping the region increase trade, attract foreign direct investment, stimulate growth and achieve convergence among Member States. However, despite their restrictions, ATRs have the potential, if properly designed and implemented effectively, to be an important instrument for the integration of Member States into global markets. In 1998, most southern African countries, as members of the Africa-Caribbean-Pacific Group (ACP), signed the Cotonou Agreement with the European Union, which includes the negotiation of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the EU and ACP countries. The Cotonou agreement explicitly leaves it up to ACP countries to decide the level and procedures for EPA trade negotiations, taking into account the regional integration process. This raises the question of how groups should be decided in the context of conflicting regional trade. De la Rocha argues that the Cotonou agreement and EPA negotiations could become the external driving force that will lead regional organizations to streamline and harmonize their regional trade agreements, thereby strengthening the region`s integration process and economy and supporting the East and South African region to become a more active partner in the global economy. Under the new agreement, the EU can be more selective and flexible in allocating and using its development resources. Endowments are based on an assessment of a country`s needs and performance and include the ability to regularly adjust financial resources.
In practice, this means that more money can be paid to „good interpreters“ and that the proportion of „bad interpreters“ can be reduced. Perhaps the most radical amendment introduced by the Cotonou Agreement concerns trade cooperation. Since the first Lomé Convention in 1975, the EU has not granted reciprocal trade preferences to ACP countries. However, under the Cotonou Agreement, this system has been replaced by the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), a new regime that came into force in 2008. The new regime provides for reciprocal trade agreements, which means that not only does the EU grant duty-free access to its ACP export markets, but also that ACP countries grant duty-free access to their own markets for EU exports.